Sunday, March 8, 2020
Representation of gender in Wong Kar Wais movies Essay Example Representation of gender in Wong Kar Wais movies Paper Representation of gender in Wong Kar Wais movies Paper Essay Topic: Film Men, who are masculine, physically strong, aggressive, intellectual, active, in dependent, production and rational; Women, who are feminine, weak, submissive, passive, dependent, consumption and emotional. Such gender stereotypes of male and female had deeply rooted in our society and had became a hegemonic definitions between men and women. The hegemonic definitions of Men and Women are more explicit in movies. There are traditional gender roles in movies, especially in main-stream commercial movies, male characters are usually strong, powerful, tough, dominate (female) and heroic; while female characters are usually being- rotected, weak, femme fatale and desire for love and romantic. These traditional gender representations on screen have been generally accepted / accustomed by audiences. Hence, producers and directors tend to follow the gender stereotypes of male and female, no matter they are producing / directing a rom-com, martial film, tragedy or cop-robber film. In this article, Im going to look into Wong Kar Wais movies, which categorized as alternative, and find out hows the differences and similarities in gender representation between his film and other commercial, main- stream movies. Firstly, I want to state some similarities in gender representation between Wongs movies and main-stream movies. Something very interesting is women are always femme-fatale in Wongs movies. Maybe they have no intention to make troubles, but hey are really mentally / physically destructive to men in his movies. For example, in the movie Fallen Angels, the female agent (Michelle Reis) employed by the hired killer Wong Chi Ming (Leon Lai) is obviously a femme-fatale to himself. In the movie, the killer tried avoid to meet or even have connection with his agent because e thinks they could no longer to keep on their partnership if theres any relationship or friendship between them. The agent played by Michelle Reis is totally invisible in the killers life. Before killer Wong Chi Ming meet his agent, he completes every mission assigned by her excellently. However, once the killer meet his beautiful female agent, death comes and knock his door. Hes attracted by his agent and want to terminate his business relationship with the agent. She asks him to kill someone as a parting favor, but Wong Chi Ming turns the hit into a suicide mission and died. Perhaps the pretty agent doesnt mean to make her partner die, but she is obviously a femme fatale in Wong Chi Mings destiny. Other than Fallen Angels, women also acted as femme fatale or trouble-maker in his movies. For example, in the 2 stories of ChungKing Express, 2 cops are lost themselves and deeply hurt after dumped by their girlfriends. In this film, both of the cops 223 (Takeshi Kaneshiro) and 633 (Tony Leung) fell into lovesick after broke up. Cop 223 became a man without his soul and started to addict to canned-pineapples after his girlfriend left. He was hurt by his ex-girlfriend and even cannot thinking logically. He drunk himself, call his old classmates with no reason, run in the rain, meet stranger in bar all of this action mean he has got troubles in his mind and these troubles was caused by his girlfriend. In the second part of the film, Cop 633 also hurt by his girl, he started to talk with Dolls, towel, soap etc. n his house, he lost his sense and just like Cop 223, many crazy thinking blow up in his mind. In this film, women play the role of trouble- maker again that make 2 men become the victim in love and suffer from lovesick caused by women. In Happy Together, a love story about 2 men, we can also see the emme fatale, troublemaker image of women. There is heres no female character in this film, howe ver, Ho Po Wing (Leslie Cheung) is playing the female role in the romance between Lai Yiu Fai and him. In this film, we can see Ho Po Wing is totally rely on his boyfriend Lai Yiu Fai and caused a lot of troubles to him. Ho spent all of Lais money that Lai cannot return to Hong Kong. Ho betrays Lai in love again and again. In the early part of the film, Ho and Lai failed to go Iguazu Fall and lost their way due to Ho Po Wings mistakes. However, in the late part, after Ho left Lai, Lai Yiu Fai travel to Iguazu Fall alone and he could arrive the Fall at last. If you compare this 2 scene, you would find that female played the role of troublemaker again. Except the image of femme fatale, something in Wong Kar Wais films is quite similar to those main-stream movies. That is women are always act as homemakers or helpers for men. In Fallen Angel, killer Wong Chi Mings female agent find business for him and make decision for him. She decides who will be killed, how, where and when. She also go to his apartment and do housework for him when hes not there. In Chungking Express, Faye (Faye Wong) get the key of Cop 633s partment and break into 633s flat while hes away. She cleans 633s flat and redecorated with new bedspreads, new clothes, new toiletries, new food. Faye even drugs 633s bottled water to make sure he gets to sleep. Both killers agent and Faye are playing the tradition role of women as homemaker and helper for men. However, they are doing these works for non-traditional purposes. Traditionally, women are stereotyped as housewives. They do housework and other things for men just because of responsible. But both the killers agent and Faye are not clean and decorate their mens flats because they have to act like housewives. They do housework for men in the purposes of fulfil their suspicions and satisfying themselves rather than acquiescing to the role of the stereotypical homemaker and be a home maid for men. Other than the those similarities mentioned above, we can find some differences in gender representation between Wong Kar Wais films and other main-stream movies. One of those differences is the representation of men. In Wong Kar Wais films, men are no hero or even weak behind their muscular body. In Fallen Angels, killer Wong Chi Ming claims to have become a contract killer because he is lazy and likes to ave others make decisions for him, so he is not presented as a hero. We never know why any of Chi-Mings victims are marked for death, he takes others life because its his job. He kills people just because he completes his duty, like post officer deliver letters, but no relation to any sense of heroism. Moreover, Wong Chi Ming fails to complete his mission and being shot down at last. The scene of Wong killed in action is totally violate to the tradition of heroism that hero are never defeated. So, Wong Chi Ming is not hero but a normal person like you and me. In Chungking Express, weakness of men is more clearly shown. Both 223 and 633 are Cop and they are traditionally supposed to physically and also mentally strong. However, we cant see Cop 223 and 633 act like hero to stop crimes and maintain law and order in the movie. Instead, we can see hows their weak image after deeply hurt by their girls. 223 forces himself to eat a can of pineapple everyday and talk to his dog to release his anxiety, while 633 hugs and chat with his dolls, dreams of his ex-girlfriend will come back soon. All these action shown men can be weak or even weaker than women sometimes. Such weak image of men is far different from the tradition which men hould be tough in physically also mentally. On the contrary, women in Wong Kar Wais films were tough, independent, free-spirited, calm, cool and usually less emotional than men. The most typical example in Wongs film is the drug smuggler (Brigitte Lin) in Chungking Express. Shes in cool style that blonde-wigged, wears long coat, and sun-glasses, always with a gun in her purse. She keeps calm when she is chasing by people want to kill her and shoots down her master and also those drug couriers who double-crossed her. She is actually playing the role of hero and presenting heroism which traditionally played by men. Women in Wong Kar Wais film act active and can say to be aggressive in many aspects, especially in love. Women usually be the active side in romance. They dare to get close to guys they liked and no fear to take action to attract mens attention. Maybe people may think that Wong Kar Wai presents women in this way just because following the traditional patriarchal ideology and fulfilling what men wanted (women play the active role in love) and have no different to the main-steam films. But in my point of view, women be active in love means they are liberated, freed in love. In Wongs movies, women no longer wait for mens love, they are not products on shelf and wait for someone to pick them up. They have rights and freedom to choose, to approach those guys they loved. For example, in Chungking Express, Faye loved Cop 633 from her first sight on him. She doesnt wait for 633 put attention on her, instead, she decides to break into his flat to discover him. She cleans and wander in his flat everyday in order to fulfil her romantic feeling on him. One more example, Baby (Karen Mok) in the Fallen Angels seduces Wong Chi Ming into a sexual relationship. I dont think its presenting the idea of patriarchal, but presenting an idea that women can be active in love or even sex. In opposition, Men are more passive than women. No matter Lai Yiu Fai in Happy Together and Chow Mo Wan in In the Mood for Love, they choose to keep their feeling of love inside instead of tell the person they like. Lai Yiu Fai has special feeling to his co- worker Chang (Chang Zhen), but he chooses not to tell him and let him leave. Similarly, Chow Mo Wan fall in love to his neighborhood Su Li Zhen (Maggie Cheung). But he chooses not to tell how deep he loves her and keep it as secret. To avoid get involve between Su and her husband, Chow leaves Hong Kong and mine his secret (his love to Su) in the tree hole. Obviously, men and womens roles of love in Wongs movies are quite different from other films. In conclusion, gender representation of men and women in Wong Kar Wais films have no bias any side. Neither men nor women are superior to each other. However, binary opposition between two sex is always played in Wongs films. Rivalry between men and women is always the main theme of his stories. We can see mind games between two sex in his films, each of them compete for control, regulate and dominate its other.
Friday, February 21, 2020
The War on Terror Has Led To Greater Violence - Essay Example However, all the countries the US has strategic control over, do not seem to be able to overcome insurgents and troublemakers. The underlying argument that attributes the causality of events is that the surge in violence caused by insurgents and Ã¢â¬ËterroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a consequence of the continued interruption of the US, NATO and its allies in the affairs of foreign countries. The argument is further strengthened by the fact that the loss of civilians as a result of misdirected and poor strategic and military decisions on the part of the US and NATO has been colossal. Think of it this way, how would the American public react if a rival state such as China, invaded Texas. It then went on to establish military bases, strategic air bases, and firm control over the region. Furthermore, it carried out searches in houses of all residents on the premise of suspected terrorist activity. The reaction would be that of anger, contempt and frustration and would lead to an uprising against the foreign occupants. The situation in Iraq and Afghanistan is strikingly similar to the one presented above, except that it is happening for real with the occupation of the US and NATO forces. ... That proposition however, could turn out to be extremely challenging for the developed world amid one of the worst economic crises of history. The rationalization that leads to the establishment of insurgent groups and Ã¢â¬ËterroristÃ¢â¬â¢ organizations stems from the basic argument of right of freedom and independence. These organizations are often termed as freedom fighters or warriors by their supporters and the zeal and purpose with which they fight goes far beyond economic incentives. Furthermore the strongest insurgent groups that are participants on the other side of the War on terror, including Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, are driven by the extra zeal of religious extremism, whereby they seek to establish the principles of their version of Islam and do not tolerate anyone who does not follow their interpretations of the religious scriptures of Islam (Riedel). Their perception of death and its consequences is starkly different from a common American citizen. Through war they seek to achieve martyrdom, and through martyrdom, heaven. Their faith in their religion is far stronger than their love for this life and their purpose of existence hinges on a better afterlife (Crews and Tarzi). To further their cause they often misinterpret or quote religious scriptures out of contexts, bringing in vulnerable youngsters to join their struggle and broadening their horizon of influence and power. Hence, it is important to realize that bringing such groups down is not a statistical battle in terms of number of men; rather it is a war against a specific faith that is strong. The invasion and occupation of these nations gives this faith extra life and
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Relationship LensEveryday Ethics - Essay Example This paper will use "Everyday Ethics" by Catharyn Baird as a guide to develop a personal ethical framework for the workplace. A number of ethical competencies need to be enhanced and developed in my profession. At the basic level it should involve anger management in order to avoid conflicts. Problems should be rectified in a smart and prudent manner. Further negative events in the workplace should be used as a stimulus to improve productivity and output. The ability of choosing how to live and work is called free will. We all decide on our own about how we will live our lives. Philosophers call this ability a gift of free will. The understanding of how to live our life is called self efficacy. This is another ethical competency that needs to be integrated in the workplace. As a professional I am answerable to the management, colleagues, and customers. I need to implement superior ethical principles which will assist in creating an efficient and effective work environment. In order to better handle our professional lives we should improve our self efficacy. Self efficacy is defined by Albert Bandura as an ability to handle different given types of performances. The people who have strong belief in their self efficacy will be ready to make choices in their lives according to the situation. They start believing that they are effective. With knowledge and learning our self efficacy can increase. In the event we find more satisfaction and we become effective ethical agents in our professional lives. Self efficacy helps to create superior relationships and associations with the stakeholders. Management, colleagues, and customers are the constituents to whom I am answerable. Workplace Integrity Integrity is about creating accountability and fairness in the workplace. This is accomplished through the pursuit of clear and precise objectives. I need to protect the information of the organization. It also means following honest and transparent procedures during work tasks and duties. Workplace Greatest Good The greatest good is achieved in the workplace by maintaining a balance between organizational interests and ethical dilemmas. I seek to create an ethical environment where the spirit of friendship, openness, and collaboration is promoted. Workplace Justice Justice inside the workplace should be implemented in a smart and prudent manner. It means that individuals should ensure that there is no discrimination or bias. As a professional, I seek to implement justice so that the work duties are distributed according to the skills and expertise of the workforce. Workplace Courage Workplace courage means that the employees should express their opinions and feedback in an open and constructive manner. I pursue these qualities in order to ensure the highest ethical and moral principles in the workplace. Future Perceptions and Career Different work situations can create cynicism in our minds and because of that self efficacy in our professional lives can become low. For example, if we are working in a manufacturing plant where we are only a part of system and not connected to our customers even in good times; we may start believing that we have no control over our economic lives. We feel
Monday, January 27, 2020
Designing a Plant Cell Model Advanced Biology Cell Project Ã Ã Cell Wall The cell, a complex yet basic part of our existence. Unlike humans, one of the most important parts of a cell for a plant cell is the cell wall. The cell wall gives the plant shape, strength, and enables communication to adjacent cells. This essential portion of the cell was initially found by Robert Hooke, though he named it simply wall. Other scientists, such as Karl Rudolphi and J.H.F Link, added to Hookes finding. What they found was that cells had their own individual walls, and that cells interacted through holes, later named the plasmodesmata. Before this discovery, it was thought that cell walls encircled large masses of cells, and that was the way that cells interacted. There are many different arrangements for cell walls, and certain parts (such as the secondary cell wall) do not show up in different types of cells. The most basic cell wall consists of two main layers, with the plasma membrane directly beneath it. The first layer is known as the Middle Lamella. This is the outermost layer of the cell wall. This layer mainly consists of a large amount of pectins, along with many other parts. The middle lamella is responsible for gluing the walls of two adjacent cells together, providing the stability to create plasmodesmata between the cells. The primary cell wall is mainly made up of cellulose microfibrils, which are what provide the structure and shape of the cell wall. This layer is also made up of little bits of hemicellulose, which is a polysaccharide responsible for adding extra strength to the cellulose microfibrils. If you happen to have a cell that does have a secondary cell wall, it is there to add extra rigidity and strength, so the cell likely would belong to a larger plant. This layer is primarily cellulose, lignin, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. This layer also has three other layers (S1, S2, and S3). These layers each have more cellulose microfibrils that alternate in directions. These parts of the secondary cell wall are what allows trees to exist. As wood cell walls mainly consist of secondary cell walls, which provide the structure that they need to stand up against gravity. Cell walls are formed in an odd way. The middle lamella is laid down first, which originates from the cell plate during cytokinesis. In other words, the middle lamella is formed while the cell is splitting off from the mother cell, after the nucleus has split into two. The primary cell wall is then inserted into the middle lamella. The cellulose microfibrils, located in the primary cell wall, are created in the plasma membrane by a process known as cellulose synthase complex. This process is not fully understood, but it is thought that all cellulose-synthesizing organisms have cellulose synthase proteins, which are catalysts for the polymerization of glucan chains. This essentially all boils down to the cellulose synthase proteins kick starting the reaction that allows for the glucan chains to become cellulose. The way that I have designed my model of the cell wall, is I have spent about 5 hours going through iteration upon iteration in CAD. When I finally decided on a simplistic, yet fully informational model, I exported all the 3D models as an STL (or stereolithography file), which is a dot-matrix of the solid. My slicer software (Cura 15.04.6) then took the file, and turned it into a series of coordinates, and other commands (such as the temperature to heat up the print nozzle/bed the print speed extrusion rate). This file I then exported this file to my SD card as a .gcode file, which my 3D printer is able to understand. The SD card was then plugged into the printer, and printed. Overall, I exported 3 different .gcode files (one for the cellulose, and two others for the middle lamella and plasma membrane) as they all wouldnt fit on the build plate as a single print. All three prints took me about 4 hours combined of print time. The way that I designed my main plant cell model was similar to this, but also very different. The first thing that I had to come up with was my wiring diagram, which consisted of me figuring out what value of resistor I needed to not let the 9v battery blow out my LEDs (every color of LED requires a different value of resistor), and how I would wire everything. I then had to design the cell in CAD. The wiring diagram probably took me about an hour, as I was trying to lay everything out the most efficient way possible on a mockup of my proto-board (done in circuit design software). I then spent about 10 hours total designing each individual part in CAD (I also ordered all the parts and got them 2 day shipped). Once all the parts arrived, I was just finishing up with the CAD, so I started the prints on the parts (the base board alone took 3 hours as I set it to a higher infill (50% instead of 10%) as I wanted it to be more substantial, and sturdy. The other parts took about 4 and a ha lf more hours to print (I printed excess of the organelles in case one broke while drilling). Bibliography Cell Wall. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Feb. 2017. Cell Wall. Cell Wall Biology-Online Dictionary. Web. 19 Feb. 2017. Cellulose Synthase (UDP-forming). Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Feb. 2017. Cytokinesis. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Feb. 2017. Li, Shundai, Logan Bashline, Lei Lei, and Ying Gu. Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation. The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant Biologists. American Society of Plant Biologists, 2014. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Frankenstein Protagonist: The protagonist in the novel is Victor Frankenstein. He is the main character who contends with the conflict in the novel. His decision to create life provides a problem that he attempts to escape but eventually marks his death. Antagonist: The antagonist in the novel is also the protagonist, Victor Frankenstein. Victor may have directed all of his hate and blame towards the monster he created, but is worst enemy lay within himself and his refusal to accept responsibility for his actions. Conflict: The main conflict in the novel is based on the Ã¢â¬Å"monsterÃ¢â¬ Victor Frankenstein created in his laboratory. He neglects his responsibility to the monster he created by ignoring its existence, and his cowardice leads to inner feelings of guilt and unhappiness that ultimately cause his life to unravel and the people he loves to perish. His refusal to be accountable for his action brings the misery and misfortune that constitute the foundation of the novel. Chronology: Robert Walton writes in his first letter to his sister Margaret Saville about his desire to explore the world. His second letter then tells about his preparations for a crew and more about how he desires to explore the unexplored. In this letter he also explains how he wishes he had a friend to share his life with. In his third letter, he tells how the voyage is underway and going well. His fourth letter tells how the ship became trapped between floating blocks of ice and, after being freed, the ship encounters and takes aboard a man who was stranded on floating ice. Walton tells how the man is in wretched condition and is very melancholy. He tells how he gradually befriends the man and, after talking for some time, the man agrees to tell Walton the story of his life and how he came to be where he is now. His name is told to be Victor Frankenstein. Walton, during the narration, takes notes in the form of a letter for Margaraet. Victor Frankenstein was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to a family of notoriety. His family adopted a young girl his age named Elizabeth from a poor family who could not support her. As a child, Victor was fascinated with alchemy and sciences. At age seventeen, VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Rolly approached Molly and Polly and asked them to be shareholders to form a company. Then Rolly acquired a shop lot worth RM350,000 in order to prepare for the company in future. She bought this shop lot below the market price as the vendor was looking urgently to sell it. After the company is formed, she sold the shop lot to Jiggles Sdn. Bhd. at market price. Thus, she gained a lucrative profit of RM200,000 without the knowledge of any other party. Definition of promoter Section 4(1) of the Companies Act 1965 defined promoter is a person preparing prospectus. (not limited to this definition alone) According to Cockburn CJ in Twycross v Grant (1877), a promoter is a Ã¢â¬Å"person who undertakes to form a company with reference to a given object and set it going and takes the necessary steps to accomplish the purposeÃ¢â¬ . (Company Law in Malaysia, pg42) A promoter may be a natural person for example when the sole proprietor promotes a company to take over his business. (Company Law in Malaysia, pg42) The promotion process includes negotiations, registration of the company, obtaining directors and shareholders and preparing the paper work. In this case, Rolly is the promoter of Jiggles Sdn. Bhd as she meets the definition of promoters. She is a sole proprietor who selling cupcakes, promoted the company to take over her business. Besides, she also obtained shareholders by approaching Molly and Polly. PromotersÃ¢â¬â¢ duties Thus, Rolly is under a fiduciary relationship with the company. She has an obligation to act in good faith for the best interest of the company and must avoid conflict of interest which will affect her behavior. Under the duty of promoter, promoter should not make secret profit, defraud the company by active concealment, disclose confidential information, hides any personal interest. On the other hand, they should make a true and honest account to the company for his dealing on behalf of the company and make full and frank disclosure to shareholders and directors. In this case, Rolly had breached her fiduciary duty. She had made a secret profit of RM200,000. She did not make full and frank disclosure of her interest to the shareholders and directors of the company. She had hide her personal interest. Thus, where Rolly fails to declare her interest in the contract with the company she is promoting, the contract is voidable at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ option as in the case of Erlanger v New Sombrero Phosphate Co (1878). Remedies of breach of duty As in the case of Erlanger v New Sombrero Phosphate Co (1878), the contract is voidable at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s option. Thus, the company may avail itself of the following remedies. The company may rescind the contract, claim for damages or recovery of secret profit. Rescind the contract-The company may choose to put an end to the contract. If the company terminates the contract, both parties are to return the benefits received. Thus, the company has to return the shop lot and Rolly has to return the purchase price received. Damages- The court may order Rolly to pay damages to the company for loss incurred when rescission is not possible, as in the case of Re Leeds and Handley Treatres of Variety. Recovery of secret profits- When rescission is not possible or the company does not want to rescind the contract, the company can recover the secret profit made by Rolly.